It also claims unbroken Apostolic Succession from St. It is both the largest and the oldest continuously operating institution in existence.
Leadbeater, formerly a clergyman in the Church of England, and later one of the heads of the Theosophical Society, was ordained as a bishop in the Old Catholic Church, additionally incorporates significant elements of theosophy into its doctrinal faith.
All of the preceding groups, including Protestants, consider themselves to be fully and completely Catholic.
All of them claim to be either part of the Catholic Church or the only Catholic Church.
The Bishop of Rome was at that time recognized as first among them, and doctrinal or procedural disputes were sometimes referred to Rome for an opinion.
When the Imperial capital moved to Constantinople, Rome's influence was often challenged.
These groups hold spiritual beliefs and practice religious rituals similar to those of Roman Catholics of the Latin Rite from which they emerged, but reject the Pope's claimed status and authority.