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The painful tabanid sting is recognized as a determining factor to interrupt blood meal.

The sting causes reactions in the host, such as muscle tremors, tail movement, hit with the head, and kick in order to make the tabanid fly away [12].

The Diachlorini tribe has primitive species and specialized species and the largest number of species in the Neotropics.

Tabanini tribe also brings together both primitive and specialized species, but not as much as those belonging to tribe Diachlorini; most species is found only in one genus (Tabanus Linnaeus) [19, 20].

Females often require blood meal for maturation of eggs, at least after the first posture, so they are considered autogenous, partially autogenous, or nonautogenous [4].

Males are phytophagous, but females, always in search of blood, repeatedly attack humans, domestic and wild animals, among primates, rodents, alligators, snakes, turtles, and birds, especially during the drier seasons [5–8].

The terms “primitive” and “specialized” refer to the position of key characters: the most primitive are the ones that are closer to the conditions found in presumably ancestral forms, such as Nematocera, specializing more away from them, either by reducing and increasing the structural complexity.

Tabanids belong to the Suborder Brachycera, characterized by short antennae with three (up to five) segments and the adults emerge from the puparium by a T‐shaped slot.

Wings with veins R limiting its apex; radial basal, basal medium, and discal cells large; posterior cubital cell usually closed near the edge of the wing; membranous wings with varying patterns.

It should be mentioned that an important study by Martins [29] on tabanids from Minas Gerais state, Brazil, located in provinces of Cerrado (Chacoan sub‐region) and Parana Forest (Parana subregion) revealed the occurrence of 9 genera and 42 species of Pangoniinae, and 12 genera and 52 species of Tabaninae (the most common genera Chrysops, with 15 species and Tabanus, with 18 species).

Descriptions of species carried out at this time are mostly considered insufficient to identify the species currently collected, if holotypes or paratypes are missing for comparison.

1 – Dorsal view of body; 2 – Lateral view of thorax and abdomen; 3 – Lateral view of head; 3.1 Antenna; 4 – Frontal view of head; 5 – Ventral view of abdomen; 6 – Wing: Bc – Basal costal cell; C- Costal cell; Cup – Cubital posterior cell; Mp – Medial posterior cell; M1, M2, M3, M4 – Medial cells; R1, R2 3, R4 – Radial cells. The distribution parameters of species according to classification by biogeographical regions are used.

Neotropical Region: Caribbean, Amazonian, Chacoan and Parana subregions; South American Transition Zone; Andean Region: Central Chilean, Subantartic and Patagonian subregions. The text provides information on taxonomy, morphological data, distribution, and bionomy on most recorded species of tabanids in South America.

More extensive studies on tabanofauna South America were performed by several authors.

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Nov 13, 2017. A HUGE thank you to our friend Laura Coulson for capturing this wonderful video during our trip to Latin America earlier in the year. There is so much warmth in this video which makes us so happy. Thank you for singing along, and for being a beautiful crowd. We love you xx The xx. 
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Apr 12, 2017. Tabanids in South America IntechOpen, Published on 2017-04-12. Authors Ronald Rodrigues Guimarães, Harlan Ronald Storti Rodrigues and Ronald Rodrigues Guimarães Júnior. 
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